Among the collections of the National Military Museum, the Numismatics one stands out, with over 15000 coins and banknotes, both Romanian and foreign. This collection was created since the museum was first sprung, with the help of donations, acquisitions or as a result of archaeological research and discovery, many of these led by the museum’s own researchers. From a time line point of view the oldest items are the ancient Greek coins, especially the Histrian silver ones, Macedonian ones, minted by Philip II and Alexander the Great, Roman republican ones or the local imitations of the last two types.

The main focus of the collection falls on the Medieval and Modern Ages, with a few rare pieces. For the Romanian Middle Ages, of great importance are the Byzantine coins, which came from the Roman-Byzantine and Byzantine citadel from Proslavița-Nufăru (Tulcea District), the coins belonging to Wallachian and Moldavian rulers from the 14th up to the 16th centuries or the few coins minted in Cetatea Albă (today Ukraine), with the Moldavian coat of arms and the inscription “Asprocastru”, discovered in the archaeological digs done by the National Military Museum in the interwar period within the Dniester delta citadel. In another note, we can name the valuable coin treasure found in 1987 during the archaeological research done at the Karaharman Citadel from Vadu (Constanța District) made up of 176 gold and 71 silver coins which is highly important for reconstructing economic life in the Black Sea region. Pieces belonging to the Holy Roman Empire or early Romanovs are also to be pointed out.

From the early Modern Age, we can point out coins minted in the Austrian Empire, the German Empire, France, Italy, England and British India, the Ottoman Empire and many others.